Nursing diagnosis for Schizophrenia

Nursing diagnosis for Schizophrenia

What is Schizophrenia?

Schizophrenia is a condition in which a person cannot interpret reality correctly and ends up interpreting it abnormally. It is a serious mental disorder that may result in delusions, hallucinations, and disordered thinking. In this condition, the activities and functions of daily living may be extremely disordered and can be highly disabling. Today’s topic- Nursing diagnosis for Schizophrenia.

In people suffering from Schizophrenia, the treatment goes for their whole life. Schizophrenia can cause serious complications if not treated early. On the other hand, early diagnosis and treatment may help in improving the long-term outlook.

Symptoms

In Schizophrenia, a wide range of problems are involved, including problems with behavior, emotions, and thinking (cognition). Signs and symptoms usually involve delusions, disorganized speech, or hallucinations. These signs and symptoms may vary from person to person and reflect an impaired ability to function. Symptoms of Schizophrenia may include:

  • Delusions: Delusion is a condition where false beliefs are not based on any real-life situation. For example, people with Schizophrenia might think that they are being harmed. They tend to think anything but not reality. They might think that they are being harassed, someone is in love with them, or even see someone not even present in the particular situation. People with Schizophrenia have exceptional ability or frame to see things in their way. Delusions are the most common symptom in people with Schizophrenia.
  • Hallucinations: In this, people usually see or hear things that do not even exist. People with Schizophrenia feel the presence of people, which is a normal experience for them. In hallucinations, a variety of sense organs might work and signal unreal things to the brains of people having Schizophrenia. The most common unreal experiences people with hallucinations face hearing voices that are not present in reality.
  • Disorganized thinking and speech: One can easily infer the symptoms of disorganized thinking from the speech of a person having Schizophrenia. Communication is impaired in such people. They cannot answer questions or might answer partially, or the answer might be completely unrelated to the question. Sometimes, people with Schizophrenia may even talk using meaningless words put together that are completely un-understandable.
  • Extremely abnormal motor control and disorganized behavior: People with schizophrenia exhibit extremely abnormal behaviors. The motor senses in these people are disorganized and totally out of control. These people might show unpredictable agitation or childlike silliness. The behavior of such people is not focused on a particular goal, which makes it quite difficult to do tasks. People with such disorders may show resistance to instructions, inappropriate posture, excessive movements, and a complete lack of response.
  • Negative symptoms: The meaning of negative symptoms is that people with Schizophrenia can not function normally. They mostly lack emotions, are unable to make eye contact, have monotonous speech, etc. These people tend to lose interest in activities of daily living and withdraw themselves from society.

Symptoms can vary from person to person according to the type and severity, with remission of symptoms or periods of worsening. But some of the symptoms may always be present in people with Schizophrenia. These symptoms usually start in the early to mid-20s in men and the late 20s in women. Children being diagnosed with Schizophrenia is quite uncommon, and it is rarely found in people older than 45 years of age.

Nursing Diagnosis for Schizophrenia

Getting familiar with the nursing diagnosis of Schizophrenia is important as Schizophrenia is an illness that can cause a variety of symptoms differing from one individual to another. People suffering from such a disabling illness have real issues while differentiating between what is real and what is not. In addition, their ability to think rationally is hampered in such conditions, thus making them socially detached.

Risk of Violence

  • Panic
  • Anger
  • Rigid posture with clenched fists
  • Not being attentive
  • Restlessness
  • Irritability
  • Aggressive communication

Interventions for such patients:

  • Keep the surrounding area free of high-level stimulus.
  • Routine observation of the patient.
  • Administration of appropriate medications and keeping an eye on their effectiveness as well as side effects.
  • Maintaining a calm attitude towards the patient and not entertaining rude or aggressive behavior.
  • Altered Thought Processes
  • Delusion
  • Inability to focus
  • Exaggerated response to a normal stimulus
  • Inconsistency in communication
  • Hallucinations
  • Disabled problem-solving abilities

Interventions for such patients:

  • Conversations with such patients should be clear and direct in a professional manner.
  • Explaining to the patient everything related to his treatment before starting with the same.
  • Maintain rules for acceptable and unacceptable behaviors.
  • Teaching patients ways to stay focused.
  • Discussing with the patients the problems they are facing when they are having delusional thoughts.
  • Social Isolation
  • Avoiding social situations
  • Depression
  • Interacting less
  • Facial expressions are sad
  • Avoiding eye contact while talking
  • Having non-verbal communication

Interventions for such patients:

  • Making a schedule for frequent short-span meetings.
  • Maintaining a proper distance from the patient till trust is there.
  • Not touching the patient unless necessary.
  • Teaching social skills.
  • Making the patient attend social activities.
  • Encourage the patient to have social interactions.
  • Sensory and Perceptual Alterations relative to Hallucinations
  • Weird sensations
  • Having less interaction with others
  • Inability to concentrate
  • Strange body sensations
  • Little or no interaction with nurses or others
  • Unable to concentrate
  • Abnormal responses to reality

Interventions for such patients:

  • Encourage patients to talk about their hallucinations and communicate with them during the event.
  • Do not argue with patients.
  • Keep an eye on the signs and symptoms of hallucinations.
  • Keeping the patient in an environment that is quiet and calm.
  • Teaching the patients techniques for distraction.
  • Impaired Verbal Communication
  • Lack of emotions
  • Reduced thinking capability
  • Speaking less
  • Unable to express why the patient is agitated
  • Incomprehensive non-verbal communication.

Interventions for such patients:

  • Have one-to-one interaction with the patient.
  • Try to comprehend what the patient is trying to express.
  • Talk to the patient about their interests, hobbies, and their favorite activities.

Frequently Asked Questions

Is there any cure for Schizophrenia?

Schizophrenia can not be fully cured. It is, though, treatable and manageable with behavioral therapy and medications. However, the prognosis is better if the condition is diagnosed early and treatment is given continuously.

Are there any types of Schizophrenia?

Yes, there are five types of Schizophrenia. These are:

  1. Schizoaffective Disorder
  2. Paranoid Schizophrenia
  3. Disorganized Schizophrenia
  4. Residual Schizophrenia
  5. Catatonic Schizophrenia
Nursing diagnosis for Schizophrenia

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